The ABCDE Model – For learned optimism*


Day to day life problems and setbacks


Our interpretation of the situation depending on our explanatory style (positive or negative). Automatic negative thoughts or ANTs are a stream of rapid pessimistic thoughts that arise due to negatively framed interpretations.


Feelings generated by our beliefs. Low self-esteem, confusion, anger, sadness etc. are the consequences of ANTs.

ANT SPRAY – point of self-intervention through “metacognition” (thinking about thinking)


Disputing with ANTs through Positive Personal Dialogue (PPD)


Generation of positive energy with change from low or irritable mood to happy mood and invigoration

*The ABCDE modelling for learned optimism was initially suggested by Albert Ellis and further modified by Martin Seligman.